This park was denominated Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1975 and a special protection area for birds in 1989. It can be found to the north east of the province of Cadiz and north west of the province of Malaga.

Its height is between 250 and 1.654 metres above sea-level. The park covers an area of 51.695 hectares and is recognised as one of the most valuable ecological areas in the southern peninsular.

It has the highest rainfall index in the Iberian Peninsula with an annual average of over 2000 litres per sq. metre and constitutes the most important western massif of the Subbetica maintain range. Its intense rainfall and natural limestone of the land has formed a karst landscape rich in crags, grottoes, caves and sinuous gorges.

The Sierra del Pinar stands out because of an important Spanish fir forest which is considered a vegetation throwback of the terciary period. Its origin of resources are the forestry industry and cattle breeding (amongst others, the breeding of wild fighting bulls). And in its surroundings, industrial activities stand out such as the manufacture of woollen blankets and products from animal skins. Other industries include tourism, hunting and fishing for sport.